还清债务还是投资?

几周前,我讲了一个故事,说我三十个同龄人中有零 在401k外投资。在那篇文章中,我对人们没有在401K以外进行投资的主要原因进行了调查。我还承诺会跟进一系列的帖子,以解决所提到的每个障碍。这是系列文章中的第一篇。




In the poll, 25% of respondents indicated that they were paying off 债务 first, before investing. This was the second biggest vote getter as to why people were not investing.

A lot of people struggle with the question of whether or not they should take money that they have earned and use it to invest or pay off 债务.

As a general rule of thumb, it is usually good strategy to pay down 债务 first versus investing money. But not always. I’会带您分析一下我’d处理此决定。

保证投资收益是稀有品

invest or pay off 债务One unique situation where it might make more sense to invest than pay off 债务 is with a 401K比赛 .

For example, my employer matches 50% of my 401K contribution. Some employers match up to 100% or more. Either is a guaranteed rate of return that is going to be higher than the APR on just about any type of 债务 you could have (excluding payday loans).

是的,这不是‘在您的401K之外进行投资’。是的,如果您为了将来而牺牲了现在,’re in too much 债务 there could be additional consequences to consider. But if your 债务 is manageable, it might make more sense to take the guaranteed returns.




您的每笔债务的实际年利率是多少?

Once you have squared away your 401K比赛 , you should then jot down the interest rate, or APR, that you are paying on each of your 债务s.

假设,让’s说看起来像这样:

  • 信用卡:12%
  • 汽车贷款:7%
  • 抵押:5%
  • 学生贷款:2%

These are the four most common types of 债务 that people have.

如果你不这样做’付清您的汽车贷款或抵押,您赢了’长时间没有房子或车辆。所以我们’我会在这篇文章中假设‘paying off 债务’ means that you are already paying off your required minimum payments and any additional 债务 pay-off is against the principal.

我们应该假设什么平均投资回报率?

这是一项艰巨的任务,因为您可以通过多种方式来切片历史投资平均数据。并且,没有任何投资保证。从1950年至2009年, S&P 500 指数(排名前500位的公司)的平均年回报率为11%。当然,在过去的十年中,我们’我们的平均回报率仅为1.5%。

但是,我们可以’不能真正将过去与现在或未来进行比较。在过去60年中,导致经济繁荣和市场增长11%的工业和技术进步很可能会赢得’将在未来60年内复制。

因此,也许我们假设年平均收益率为5%,这可以通过支付高股息的股票获得的股息来实现。您的实际回报会有所不同,但是除非发生重大灾难,否则5%的回报似乎并不过于乐观。用你的电话号码’d想做自己的评估。

average_historical_investment_returns

过去十年来市场一直很艰难

将您的债务的年利率与非常保守的投资回报进行比较

Time to compare investment returns versus 债务. What’s not always intuitive is that paying off 债务s you’从很多方面来说,我已经假设自己就像在保证自己的投资回报率(而不是还清回报)。例如,将额外的资金投入可以有效偿还该贷款最后一年的汽车贷款,可以保证自己获得7%的投资回报,而在那一年继续支付贷款利息。

In other words, not paying off your 债务 presents an opportunity cost.

考虑到这一点,让’s look at each of those four 债务s again and analyze each individually against a potential 5% annual return if we were to invest the money:

  • 信用卡:12%– this is a no brainer. If you have credit card 债务, you should probably take non-retirement funds that you’d be putting towards investments and using those funds to pay off your 债务. 12% is on the low end of credit card interest payments –有些甚至高达22%或更高。无论’s 12% or 22%, you would be considered extremely lucky to achieve that level of annual return through investments over time. Pay off that credit card 债务.
  • 汽车贷款:7% – 通过特殊促销,一些汽车贷款可能会低于7%,但这大约是我所看到的平均水平。我宁愿获得7%的保证回报,也不愿在市场上花我的钱,但这’s just me.
  • 抵押:5% – this is a tricky one. When your 债务 carries an interest rate that matches up evenly with a conservative investment return, you can really go either way. It becomes more of a lifestyle choice than anything else, in my opinion. Do you want to carry that 债务 and the stress that comes with it, or do you want to try to get better returns, which you could then put towards the 债务? I don’t think there’在这里是对是错。
  • 学生贷款:2% –我妻子仍然有2%的年利率的学生贷款。我们绝不会支付这些贷款所需的最低付款额。一世’我相当有信心,我可以找到回报率高于2%(低于多年通货膨胀率)的投资。

债务偿还与投资讨论:

  • 您是如何做出这个决定的?
  • 您是否同意我的方法?

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